The Great Qur'an is full of knowledge on a wide range of matters, definitely unknown to human beings at the time of Muhammad (SA). As science gradually gropes forward, humankind becomes more and more amazed at the absolute truth of the Qur'anic knowledge revealed over fourteen centuries ago, when human beings had no idea about these matters. This subject is a vast one, and is certainly beyond the scope of this brief monograph.
The Glorious Qur'an gives evidence of the truth on various aspects of life, the earth, its shape, its rotation, the mountains, their continuous move ment and their importance in the stability of the earth, the water source and its storage, information about the skies, the sun and the moon and other planets, the plants, the animals, the insects, and the amazing and disci plined world order, the sophisticated abilities and performances in the entire universe as a whole, the spirit, the composition of human and mammal milk, what mankind is made of, human embryology and the beginning of life, man's destiny, Almighty Allah's attributes, the history of various civil isations, the history of previous Divine prophets and messengers, the names of previous Divine books, and so on.
Therefore, unlike the Holy Bible, the Miraculous Qur'an is not primarily a book of religious history and events. It contains practically all aspects of din (the way of life prescribed by Allah the Exalted), matters such as sociology, geology, medicine, astronomy, theology, history, biology, anthropology, Divine world order, eternal peace and so forth. But it should be borne in mind that the Noble Qur'an does not claim to be a Book of law or science or of any of the above disciplines. It is a Book of Guidance for mankind.
Throughout history, many devout religious figures full of inspiration have produced uplifting writings full of beauty and grace. Many of them have been favoured with a considerable body of supporters and followers. For those who have not studied the Great Qur'an, it is very easy to accept such writings as divine scriptures, and mistake the writer for a prophet of Allah the Exalted, as these glamorous writings can entice the heart and the spirit very effectively. But those who are wellâ€‘versed in the Holy Qur'an, and have understood its uniquely exalted position, can immediately tell the difference between this Divine Book and the product of a created mortal. This is a very important issue, particularly in today's life when the shallow and cosmetic image is well advertised and well accepted at the expense of valuable genuineness, nobility, logic and Truth.
Only a few examples of the scientific wisdom of the Glorious Qur'an are covered below but the full coverage can easily be the subject of a very large book:
About the earth
"Seest thou not that Allah merges Night into Day and He merges Day into Night... " XXXL:29
Merging is a gradual process and could not be caused if the earth were flat. Science was finally bound to discover the very reality that the earth was a spherical body, and not a flat surface! But if every word of Allah the Exalted could have been understood at the time of revelation, mankind would have known this fact over fourteen centuries ago. In ayah XXXIX:5, we also see "...He makes the Night overlap the Day, and the Day overlap the Night...", also confirming the fact that the earth is not a flat surface.
Is the earth truly a sphere?
In fact it is not! In LXXIX:30, A11ah the Exalted explains how He extended the earth like an egg! Experts in Arabic literature agree that one of the old meanings of the word daha was "egg". This eggâ€‘shaped form of the earth was, of course, discovered many centuries after the Miraculous Qur'an had already spread that information. Allahâ€‘u Akbar! (this is an expression of magnification, literally meaning Allah is Greatest):
"And the earth, He extended it (as an egg) after that." LXXIX:30
In the field of oceanography, we find:
"Or, (the status of unbelievers) is like the depths of darkness in a vast deep ocean, overwhelmed with layer topped by layer of waves, topped with (dark) clouds. Depths of darkness, one above another..." XXIV:40
Only recently did science discover that:
A. Water manoeuvres in various layers in the ocean. These layers may have different characteristics, such as salinity, density, temperature, marine biology, and so on; and they may move relative to one another.
B. Each layer acts as a filter causing the gradual disappearance of a certain light spectrum. For example, red light is excluded at about 30 metres, green at approximately 100 metres and blue at about 200 metres of depth. This continues to ultimate darkness at deeper sections of the ocean where fish could not see anything if there were no source of light within their own bodies. In the above ayah, waves and clouds are also mentioned to empha sise the degree of darkness associated with the status of unbelievers, as clouds cause absorption, and waves cause reflection of light before it can reach the surface of an ocean.
How could Muhammad (SA), who had never seen an ocean, possibly know these twentiethâ€‘century scientific discoveries over fourteen hundred years ago? This, and many similar ayat,are signs of Divine wahy revealed throughout the Glorious Qur'an.
In the field of geology:
"Have we not spread out the earth, and the mountains as pegs?" LXXVIII:6â€‘7
Again, this is a relatively new discovery that mountains (like teeth) are deeply rooted into the earth (mantle), as anchors to help stabilise the full system of earth, including the mountains themselves. They keep the earth in balance during the rotation, they prevent slippage of layers of earth during the rotation, and similarly to tree roots they keep mountains firmly in place.
In the field of astronomy:
The words "sun" and "moon" have been mentioned in the Glorious Qur'an many times. Without exception, the sun is always associated with light as a source (siraj, wahhaj, diya',etc.), whereas the moon is always referred to as a body that reflects the light (nur). This is, of course, general knowledge today, but over fourteen centuries ago, how did any one know, least of all The Prophet Muhammad (SA), (who had no earthly teacher) that the sun was a source of light, and the moon was its reflector? Please refer to the words nur, siraj and wahhaj in the Glossary. These short ayat are but two examples of such wisdom and knowledge:
"See you not how Allah has created the seven skies (heavens) one above another, and made the moon a light (nur) in their midst, and made the sun a (Glorious) Lamp (siraj)?" LXXI:15 & 16
"It is He Who made the sun to be a shining glory [diya'], and the moon to be a light (of beauty), and measured out stages for her; that ye might know the number of years and the count (of time)..." X:5
In medical science:
A very extensive research on human embryology has recently found astonishing conclusions which had already been revealed over fourteen centuries ago. Keith L. Moore, Professor of Anatomy and Chairman of the Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine of the University of Toronto, has written a voluminous book on this subject, detailing the close match between the ayat of the Holy Qur'an and the findings of his team. The find ings of this work are in perfect harmony with many ayat of the Miraculous Qur'an as well as with severalhadith quotations.
This book is now available in English, German, Russian, Chinese, Japanese, Italian and Portuguese.
It is difficult to reduce a 500â€‘page book with descriptive colour pictures into a few simple paragraphs. Basically, through the revelations from the Glorious Qur'an and ahadith, one finds the most comprehensive and accurate terminology to refer to various stages of embryology, the rules of heredity, and chromosomal makeup of a new being, and many other specific pieces of information which have been either unknown or misunderstood by medical science for many centuries. Embryologists are amazed to learn that accurate periods of time associated with specific embryonic developments have been mentioned in the ahadith, such as:
"In every one of you all components of your creation are gathered together by 40 days..." 
"When 42 nights have passed over the drops (fertilisation), Allah sends an angel to it, who shapes it and makes its ears, eyes, skin, flesh and bones. Then he asks: Oh Lord! is it male or female? and your Lord decides and the angel records it." 
The use of modern technology and magnified pictures of the embryo taken at different intervals clearly shows the development of the body as given above. The Glorious Qur'an reveals three veils of darkness that surround the embryo:
"...He creates you in the wombs of your mothers, stage by stage, one after another, in three veils of darkness..." XXXIX:6
Today, they are known to be: the anterior abdominal wall, the uterine wall, and the amniochorionic membrane.
As I write these words, I cannot help treasuring and adoring the quality and importance of the Wisdom and Knowledge given to us by Allah the Exalted in the Glorious Qur'an. People should be very careful when they pass judgements about many soâ€‘called "Divine" books. The Noble Qur'an is the bestâ€‘known yardstick with which these claims can be examined.
Any further details on the scientific research on human embryology is beyond the scope of this book. I would like to refer the reader to the source book for this amazing information:
The Developing Human â€‘ Clinically Oriented Embryology
3rd edition (with Islamic additions), ISBN 0â€‘7216â€‘6472â€‘5, 1983
Dar alâ€‘Qiblah for Islamic Literature
P .O. Box 10932, Jeddah 21443, S. Arabia.
Although there is a great deal to write about the findings of various subjects that have already been revealed in the Precious Qur'an centuries ago, I should stop at this point. These few pages are only meant to be a humble illustration of the absolute knowledge reflected by the Miraculous Qur'an. For further information one could refer to:
The Bible, the Qur'an and Science by Maurice Bucaille (French Academy of Medicine) Published by American Trust Publications, 1979 7216 S. Madison Ave., Indianapolis, IN 46227, USA.
The Qur'an and Modern Science
The Islamic Academy of Science
20B Jalan Daud, Kg Bahm, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.